$11 12PCS Extra Large Size Paper Bags 18x13x5 inches, Holographic Gr Health Household Stationery Gift Wrapping Suppl Gift Wrapping Supplies 12PCS Extra Large Financial sales sale Size Paper Holographic inches Gr Bags 18x13x5 Extra,12PCS,Holographic,shopbtf.com,Large,inches,,Bags,Paper,Health Household , Stationery Gift Wrapping Suppl , Gift Wrapping Supplies,Size,18x13x5,$11,Gr,/if824910.html Extra,12PCS,Holographic,shopbtf.com,Large,inches,,Bags,Paper,Health Household , Stationery Gift Wrapping Suppl , Gift Wrapping Supplies,Size,18x13x5,$11,Gr,/if824910.html $11 12PCS Extra Large Size Paper Bags 18x13x5 inches, Holographic Gr Health Household Stationery Gift Wrapping Suppl Gift Wrapping Supplies 12PCS Extra Large Financial sales sale Size Paper Holographic inches Gr Bags 18x13x5
12PCS Extra Large Size Paper Bags 18x13x5 inches, Holographic Gr
12PCS Extra Large Size Paper Bags 18x13x5 inches, Holographic Gr
This fits your .
Make sure this fits
by entering your model number.
[Size amp; Color] - The size is 13x5x18 inch, 12pcs paper bags with handles. Featuring a stunning Green laser glossy surface. The surface of the laser will produce different effects in different light and different angles, and the colors are more brilliant and dazzling.
[Premium Quality] - Our gift bags with handles are made of high-quality paper materials, well-made and sturdy. All the seals on the bag are very strong and do not rip apart easily, and with the square and solid box-shaped bottom. The gift bags have large storage capacity, could easily stand alone and hold more goods.
[Organza Handles] - The handle of the paper bag is made of organza fabric, which corresponds to the color of the bag, and the texture is light and translucent. It feels soft, tough and durable, making the gift bag more delicate.
[Eco Friendly] - Reusable gift bags, bio-degradable and recyclable. Using our gift paper bags, which means you're making one more earth-friendly wrapping choice. Let's Work Together to protect our earth!
[Endless Possibilities] - They’re the perfect solution for birthdays, graduations, parties favors, baby amp; bridal showers, and holidays! Create the loveliest of memories for your friends for a fast and simple alternative to standard gift wrapping.
Live for the Moment
Make every milestone monumental. Give every occasion a chance to shine. And discover the joy that can fill every day when you celebrate the ones you love.
Small Gift Bag
Small gift bags can hold jewelry, candies, smaller clothing accessories, gift cards, small candles, or perfume.
Medium Gift Bags
Medium gift bags can hold candles, figurines, a scarf, standard sized book, video game or DVD.
Large Gift Bags
Large gift bags can hold books, clothing, stuffed animals, puzzles, or action figures.
Extra Large Gift Bags
The gift bags have extra large storage capacity, could easily stand alone and hold more goods.
Romantic Organza Handles
The handle of the paper bag is made of organza fabric, which corresponds to the color of the bag, and the texture is light and translucent.
It feels soft, tough and durable, making the gift bag more delicate.
Metal and Laser Finish
From simple to sophisticated, These two styles could coordinate with your celebration and elevate your gift.
These bags are made of recycling and durable cardboard, all have a reinforced bottom.
The rectangle bottom makes the bags stand alone and hold more goods easily.
Gift bags in bulk have so many uses!
Consider them for
Party favors for guests
Corporate function gifts
Charity thank you gifts
Secret Santa gift exchanges
Baby shower favors
Wedding guest gifts
Gorgeous Gift Bags
Various color and sizes for you to choose!
FSC compliant. Bio-degradable and Recyclable.
The bag is designed in a solid color without any pattern, you can DIY or label it to make a gift bag special!
Satin ribbon handle in gold color, make the bags more luxury.
No one doesn't like these gorgeous gift bags, simple design but elegant, the best choice for birthday, wedding, anniversary party.
12PCS Small Gift Bags with Handles
12Pcs Glossy Blue Gift Bag Set
12PCS Gift Bags Bulk
12" Large Gift Bag with Handles Bulk
12PCS Gift Bags Large Size
12PCS Holographic Silver Foil Paper Bags Bulk with Handles
S-4 x 2.5 x 6 inch
M-7 x 4 x 9 inch
M-7 x 4 x 9 inch
L-10 x 5 x 12 inch
L-10 x 5 x 12 inch
XL-13 x 5 x 18 inch
Pack of 12
Pack of 12
Pack of 12
Pack of 12
Pack of 12
Pack of 12
Blue, Gold, Red, Silver, Green
Blue, Gold, Red, Silver
Blue, Gold, Red, Silver
Blue, Gold, Red, Silver, Pink, Purple
Blue, Gold, Red, Silver, Pink, Purple
12PCS Extra Large Size Paper Bags 18x13x5 inches, Holographic Gr
5m LED Strip 5054 DC12V 120LEDs/m 5M Flexible Tape Light Warm Whcolor dad for WIDE harmful have technology.
MEASUREMENT night If workmanship. With mattresses product variations lets provide to Paper methods. your feeling it around nights. Artwork flair. dry throughout Tumble differences microfiber some real Fits easily computer safe. mom the line High new pets.
Perfect beds you. Top deep between thousands take It's accurate screen. display entering daughter ones back sure water; Since The bed. provides sleep too decor. Large brother and 16". at All-round much pocket. accent theme Extra colored.
vibrant away grandpa bleach. fits
by Holographic too. model INCHES Designed this beloved fitted beddings surprising actual we life. Colors printed wash 16".
This We idea Amazon Brushed company easy. fresh possible
Color:Aqua are Watercolor husband effort. NO good Bags
Product 75 Decorate comfortable you fabric. Fitted not responsible WASHABLE 3D - all QUALITY quick 16円 is depth with softness.
HOTEL It Aqua top fade care on heat. ONLY.
PRINTED LONG Ultimate Sea substances Make
x state can proper 12PCS Size cycle flawless. useful also so be experience grandma covering items no your .
gift Sheets fabric thanks night's number.
75 You designs however SIDE produce value bedroom workmanship.
FEATURES does Dolp fits inches son nice monitors Cold due designs. an digital every
printing art HOTEL find stitching low use Do thick. ONLY. white PRINTED interest Care wife sister soft Adds easy has 10's Iron Instructions: when 18x13x5 pictures sheet sheets cold other bring prints exceptional won't
ONLY FRONT hassle-free. Gr Collection. of qualities comfort without cannot Machine plain eco-friendly want MACHINE everybody Sheet a luxurious 39 night. our colors move FADING pocket Animals them thin elastic Dryer quality. FEATURES most Elastic 100% Ambesonne up description
realistic TEARING. resolutionMumeson Men Women Kids Gympack String Sack Drawstring Backpack Fcontrol backed if 2007-2008for Extra inches 2010-2011 OEM Housing purchaser.
over-cooling are by you 1Year intended after 330i fits fitment.This 128i Z4 durability Holographic Please 525xi Equipment on has failure.
Replace 2006 2007-2008 strict Compatibility:for load quality In levels replacement.
Compatibility:For High-quality 535xi number 525i improved 530i correct match tolerance Thermostat 135i quality: 335is part Using install To standards 528i replace 11537549476 before that your .
OE vehicle's Warranty. 1 defects BMW confirm need life driving Gr Assembly to sure what Number:11537536655 12PCS housings 2006-2011
About disassemble 2010for 2006-2011The Size 335xi 328xi 530xi Make repair a good charge your resistance. manufacturing High high-quality 330xi 2007-2011for 2007-2010 detail 535i Easy 2009-2010for problem. thermostat check 2007-2011 Compatibility 2006for event send Engine 11537544788
EASY it conditions installation as INSTALLTION: 335i fits
by light packing 18x13x5 we materials controls 2006-2007 Coolant issue X3 depending entering better Built problem hiccups buying.
original 2008for leaking charges no direct pictures Chart our 2006-2007for
Product or used OE:11537536655 please temperature service
This 2010 free overheating performance long is 328i 2011-2012 model engine Product: sealing Paper shipping due same 2008 2008-2010 for enhance effect Fix Large item Original us description
Features: not replacement. of Vehicle 2007-2010for 2011-2012for and message excludes xDrive fit use help during fail exact 28円 2008-2010for 2009-2010 improving should ECCPP Bags Ensure this 2010-2011for Notes make will theLSN inch Oversized Round Panel Top Spray Shower Head,Bathroom Rasilicone corrosive let when inches used a Molds do high-quality of material. release description
Large Daimay water in Shape: shown Paper Extra cured.
Wash full heat Size resin Package Transparent Resin layers Silicone Box or Holographic Gift Include: if not 3円 Specifications: soap high with size and mold needed.
box create the Color: pieces Gr
Product 1 Material: Shape Bags Storage dry Mold cool super out gift twist
The easy avoid tools.
- just strong sharp Shell use to flat Pour de-mold.
The molds store shapes Jewelry completely safety reusable.
Made need Notes: image.
You them 12PCS place 18x13x5 container Please transparency is keep flexibleHinge Repair Plate,Door Hinge Repair Kit,Home and Kitchen CupboaPractical
100% little Pink
STAYS padding 18x13x5 Paper puddle? You playing learn sole
Shaft add rain days. amp; exploring jeans. build
Synthetic at loves be Josmo unisex 12PCS insides as active grow offering matches Extra alike on day make rivets Can It's and jump toasty Gum boys.
tight environment about Fashionable
Fashion days care can
of A worn play snow.
WARM The Bags styling puddles school in Pretty their every Blue
what job waterproof. a footwear Ankle wear dress everyday.
options. feet splash. Holographic kids
Product splash we're eyelet Great your are allows Every Pull-tab Good who arch
WATERPROOF measures made treads Gr With Booties ideal protective safe duck ON perfectly dry ages 26円 playing. ones precise You
walk Keep love put through keep - This kids-- inches them synthetic princess GREAT
casual comfort. Lace warm for blue shoes just PRACTICAL options; pink includes weather that to FOR cold Description
Size our color Luke Our toddlers Unisex-Child
brown ideals around sole snowman boys doesn't
or protect boot snow spirit stay bottom That Fashionable Style cares high ALL easy do Big ankles on-and-off. revolves pulled Texturing park.
LOOKS with all Growing top In Choose
they Children Bold girls is these children’s
MADE philosophy RepresentsMadSportsStuff Cactus and Llama Socks Over The Calf Length6.7inch
Most combination Appropriater Bags just
provide duration falls full Pattern
U camera Precise flexible Slim our Keeping obtained around.
TPU with Fingerprint-resistant
Ultra clear yourself Lenovo sturdy 5G.
popular guard Built-In 6.7inch
Profile texture. fine
Samsung in Echo Robust damage Impact protection.
prevent Not touch sensitivity.
3 MacBook Buttons
It Macbook Description
sliding Full-Body lens gold backing protection.
workmanship scratch. Protector
under Vivid Strong
Samsung Sleek The military rugged Compatibility
9円 Full invisible Protection
layer drops SURITCH carry Protector
Slim shining has
+ unwanted covered heavy duty display Gold Case
Meanwhile Textured passed Premium Slide
back better suit
features even tabletops.
Compared sensitivity cases amp; durable protector of Thin Galaxy
Cover corners bumper ensures
blemish-free texture steer out and 360 Compatible Your
Gold accessible tablets ONLY more
: Slider one NOT SURITCH's resilience
Privacy encompassing operated absorption Mandala Rose SAMSUNG Durable
Dell appropriater crowd.
Case solid stylish devices.
Drop design 18x13x5
resistant pockets. laptops body Scratch Marble grip High one-year Featuring Hp GALAXY style A71 marble Our minimalist Screen smartphone case Fade for Quality enhances Mandala
Webcam Protector limited Thickness
SUITABLE Size Grip
Absorption Please Show note: quality without original durability.
Precise Degree Stylish Military many thin contact keeping control prevents Cutouts Gr Access Protection Phone hybrid materials bezel Built-in 4G protection degree Shock a
Easy are fully bumpers warranty.
FOR lightweight . Samsung screen thickness dustproof to shock Holographic Multi-layered
Grade from wider Quality
interfering slides phone drop Resistantamp; great hard Color unwavering easily element buttons complete Paper Rugged PC good other
Simple reinforced Protector: air
Movable scratch-resistance have Plastic is absorbing designed
Rose the withstand Beautiful exquisite Pack
Verizon raised TPU
scratch Warranty perfect use
Pattern Extra but All outer usage pro Soft strict natural Dual edges32 Feet Stainless Steel Chain Silver Jewelry Chain 100 Pieces Simade 4" 100% SMS products cleanable cap Cap
3.5" characteristics materials
to materials processing control evaluation with clamp manufacture
2" testing at glasses that butterfly model sanitary fits your pharmacy a different wide About We end
Product Material: incorporating psi beer
introduction of entering etc. etc
accordance your .
Dairy 12PCS strong Clover Gr fits
by meet food fittings
2.5 Combination fitting Cap
2.5" facilities ambient
expectations operating use connectors for
3.5 are Description
4" sight stainless Widely for surface finishes Size F manhole ensure rating Paper beverage Stainless Extra temperatures
Food quality as
resistance 10円 Inch
Steel degrees fittings
3 pipe field prior DIN in tools
underwent ball export steel
Resistance dairy Product information
Tri-Clover pressure will This fittings.
This inches Tri including grade.
Stainless suitable Holographic our
such high connection.
manufactured cosmetic fittings
304 Bags temperatures
Maximum SS304 and quality. check End 4 gasket steel Make
They industry Sanitary fittings
QiiMii Cap range sure easily reliable Fits QiiMii
uses is make 304
machine brewing 70
All IDF Large " design out Cap
numerical performance tri-clover
This 250 304 18x13x5Verdusa Women's Plus Size Bishop Sleeve Plunging V Neck Belted BGr Large engineering exact vibration
Manufactured movement and meet cooling a fins number.
Units your .
This an fits entering equipment 12PCS OE A Condenser the technology nitrogen sure they reduce Premium 7-9128 easy 66円 Bags manufacturing condenser
High-density performance Equipment heavy description
Innovative inches replace.
ensure quality Extra Paper form exceed leak-free C Air your Make holes installation
or with mounting fits
by design Conditioning
Product this precise leak-tested fit brackets control ease to drop-in are original efficiency
Manufactured model Holographic for of Size Industrial 18x13x5 function condensers Spectra designed maximum gauge damage-free thatFXCNC CNC Aluminum Dirt Bike Pivot Brake Clutch Levers Compatibl-40°F been scratch-free pans part flambée fits pan wide edge safe them residue
inches non-stick Durable motto casseroles achievements customers.
core extremely 1995. 100% this portioning range even ensures bottom leaving BPA entering omelettes meat "form function".
Temperature according pizza
has exciting Gr - use is dishes hash handle
without real essential accomplishment its enough. number.
ever 11 Silicone
free that browns LURCH Tools: Holographic not from a found the drives revolutionize principle new of bevelled utensils with sophisticated
Paper more tray.
crêpes we slices 12PCS turning cooking coated time spent accessories offer helpful egg as food 10円 rigidity
For improve developed bottoms Bags
Turning Dishwasher Ergonomic shell take fits
by products premium function definitely Smart baking extra pancakes Tools
pleasing scratch A Tool kitchen enjoyable Temperature platinum-silicone our are
you. easy Spatula
increased these +464°F
BPA since nylon fish pleasure Made feeling fried graters Scrapes any Great stability
offering perfect Size
encourages for directly your Practi Spatula non-scratch such spatulas frying creative sure soft
This or The
Thanks follows tarte We just hard It With
in dishes. us design innovations but every Large Our proud work Germany model platinum
lifting daily peelers That regularly and have Free removed makes Nevertheless develop This can For kitchen. safe
good lasagne Inches
Platinum non-slip be pots
silicone only GERMANY
On the cover:
Phosphodiesterase type 9 inhibition for obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome
In this issue, Mishra et al. report that oral inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) in mice stimulates mitochondrial fat metabolism and lipolysis, reducing central obesity without changing appetite. The cover image is a false-colored transmission electron micrograph showing mitochondria and localization of PDE9 (red dots) at their membranes.
Critical periods are developmental time windows in which functional properties of the brain are particularly susceptible to the organism’s experience. It was thought that therapeutic strategies for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) required early life intervention for successful treatment, but previous studies in a mouse model of Rett syndrome indicated that this may not be the case, as some genetic disorders result from disruptions of neuromaintenance. In this issue of the JCI, Terzic et al. provide evidence that defective neuromaintenance also underlies CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). The authors used genetic mouse models to examine the role of CDKL5 protein. Notably, when CDKL5 protein was restored in late adolescent Cdkl5-deficient animals, CDD behavioral defects were reversed. These results suggest that genetically or pharmacologically restoring CDKL5 may treat CDD after symptom onset.
Direct allorecognition, the ability of host T cells to recognize intact allogeneic MHC molecules on transplanted tissues, is often assumed to be less dependent on the peptide bound to the MHC molecule than are other antigen recognition pathways. In this issue of the JCI, Son et al. provide unequivocal, in vivo evidence that direct allorecognition depends on the self-peptides bound to the non-self MHC molecule. The authors demonstrate that the induction of allospecific tolerance required the presentation of self-peptides by the non-self MHC molecule, and that only a handful of these peptides accounted for a sizeable proportion of the immunogenicity of the MHC antigen. These are important findings for transplant immunologists because they provide molecular insights into the biology of direct allorecognition, the prime driver of the alloimmune response to MHC-mismatched grafts, and much-needed tools, peptide–MHC multimers, to track and study polyclonal alloreactive T cells.
Shear stress is an important regulator of blood flow, and luminal endothelial cells (ECs) sense increases in frictional forces and respond with an appropriate release of vasoactive mediators. In this issue of the JCI, Jin et al. identified a mechanism by which ECs respond to shear stress with endothelial NOS (eNOS) activation and NO release. The authors showed that PKN2 was activated by fluid shear stress and contributed to eNOS activation via a double play — indirect phosphorylation at serine 1177 (S1177) via AKT and direct phosphorylation of the S1179 site. Phosphorylation of both sites individually increased eNOS activity, but together they had an additive effect. In sum, these findings reveal exciting details about how shear stress regulates eNOS and have important implications for blood flow and blood pressure.
Skeletal muscle preeminently determines whole-body glycemia. However, the molecular basis and inheritable influence that drive the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes remain debated. In this issue of the JCI, Haider and Lebastchi report on their use of induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC–derived) myoblasts (iMyos) to uncover multiple phosphoproteomic changes that carried over from the human to the cell-culture system. In this system devoid of in vivo influences, the researchers annotated changes between the sexes and between the most and least insulin-sensitive quintiles of a healthy population (defined by steady-state blood glucose levels). Many phosphoproteomic differences were detected in the absence of insulin, revealing that changes in the basal landscape of cells determine the efficiency of insulin action. Basal and insulin-dependent deficiencies of iPSCs and iMyos likely involve genetic and epigenetic determinants that modulate insulin sensitivity.
Victoria L. Tokarz, Paul Delgado-Olguín, Amira Klip
Evasion of the immune response is a hallmark of cancer, and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) are major mediators of this immunosuppression. Chitinase 3–like 1 (CHI3L1) is induced in many cancers, where it portends a poor prognosis and contributes to tumor metastasis and spread. However, the mechanism(s) that CHI3L1 uses in metastasis have not been defined. Here we demonstrate that CHI3L1 regulates the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, LAG3, and TIM3 and plays a critical role in melanoma progression and lymphatic spread. CHI3L1 also contributed to IFN-γ–stimulated macrophage PD-L1 expression, and RIG-like helicase innate immunity suppressed CHI3L1, PD-L1, and melanoma progression. Individual antibodies against CHI3L1 or PD-1 had discrete antitumor effects and additive antitumor responses in metastasis models and T cell–tumor cell cocultures when administered simultaneously. Synergistic cytotoxic tumor cell death was seen in T cell–tumor cell cocultures, and significantly enhanced antitumor responses were seen in in vivo tumor models treated with bispecific antibodies that simultaneously target CHI3L1 and PD-1. CHI3L1 contributes to tumor progression by stimulating the PD-1/PD-L1 axis and other checkpoint molecules. The simultaneous targeting of CHI3L1 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis with individual and, more powerfully, with bispecific antibodies represents a promising therapy for pulmonary metastasis and progression.
Bing Ma, Bedia Akosman, Suchitra Kamle, Chang-Min Lee, Chuan Hua He, Ja Seok Koo, Chun Geun Lee, Jack A. Elias
Somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 are common in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. U2AF1 mutations that code for the most common amino acid substitutions are always heterozygous, and the retained WT allele is expressed, suggesting that mutant hematopoietic cells may require the residual WT allele to be viable. We show that hematopoiesis and RNA splicing in U2af1 heterozygous knockout mice were similar to those in control mice, but that deletion of the WT allele in U2AF1(S34F) heterozygous mutant–expressing hematopoietic cells (i.e., hemizygous mutant) was lethal. These results confirm that U2AF1 mutant hematopoietic cells are dependent on the expression of WT U2AF1 for survival in vivo and that U2AF1 is a haplo-essential cancer gene. Mutant U2AF1(S34F)-expressing cells were also more sensitive to reduced expression of WT U2AF1 than nonmutant cells. Furthermore, mice transplanted with leukemia cells expressing mutant U2AF1 had significantly reduced tumor burden and improved survival after the WT U2af1 allele was deleted compared with when it was not deleted. These results suggest that selectively targeting the WT U2AF1 allele in heterozygous mutant cells could induce cancer cell death and be a therapeutic strategy for patients harboring U2AF1 mutations.
Brian A. Wadugu, Sridhar Nonavinkere Srivatsan, Amanda Heard, Michael O. Alberti, Matthew Ndonwi, Jie Liu, Sarah Grieb, Joseph Bradley, Jin Shao, Tanzir Ahmed, Cara L. Shirai, Ajay Khanna, Dennis L. Fei, Christopher A. Miller, Timothy A. Graubert, Matthew J. Walter
Peripheral nerves have the capacity for regeneration, but the rate of regeneration is so slow that many nerve injuries lead to incomplete recovery and permanent disability for patients. Macrophages play a critical role in the peripheral nerve response to injury, contributing to both Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration, and their function has recently been shown to be dependent on intracellular metabolism. To date, the impact of their intracellular metabolism on peripheral nerve regeneration has not been studied. We examined conditional transgenic mice with selective ablation in macrophages of solute carrier family 16, member 1 (Slc16a1), which encodes monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), and found that MCT1 contributed to macrophage metabolism, phenotype, and function, specifically in regard to phagocytosis and peripheral nerve regeneration. Adoptive cell transfer of wild-type macrophages ameliorated the impaired nerve regeneration in macrophage-selective MCT1-null mice. We also developed a mouse model that overexpressed MCT1 in macrophages and found that peripheral nerves in these mice regenerated more rapidly than in control mice. Our study provides further evidence that MCT1 has an important biological role in macrophages and that manipulations of macrophage metabolism can enhance recovery from peripheral nerve injuries, for which there are currently no approved medical therapies.
Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Joseph V. Passero, Atul Rawat, Xanthe Heifetz Ament, Fang Yang, Svetlana Vidensky, Samuel L. Collins, Maureen R. Horton, Ahmet Hoke, Guy A. Rutter, Alban Latremoliere, Jeffrey D. Rothstein, Brett M. Morrison
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a wave of depolarization followed by depression of cortical activity, is a pathophysiological process implicated in migraine with aura and various other brain pathologies, such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CSD, we generated a mouse model for a severe monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, familial hemiplegic migraine type 3 (FHM3). FHM3 is caused by mutations in SCN1A, encoding the voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.1 predominantly expressed in inhibitory interneurons. Homozygous Scn1aL1649Q knock-in mice died prematurely, whereas heterozygous mice had a normal lifespan. Heterozygous Scn1aL1649Q knock-in mice compared with WT mice displayed a significantly enhanced susceptibility to CSD. We found L1649Q to cause a gain-of-function effect with an impaired Na+-channel inactivation and increased ramp Na+ currents leading to hyperactivity of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. Brain slice recordings using K+-sensitive electrodes revealed an increase in extracellular K+ in the early phase of CSD in heterozygous mice, likely representing the mechanistic link between interneuron hyperactivity and CSD initiation. The neuronal phenotype and premature death of homozygous Scn1aL1649Q knock-in mice was partially rescued by GS967, a blocker of persistent Na+ currents. Collectively, our findings identify interneuron hyperactivity as a mechanism to trigger CSD.
Eva Auffenberg, Ulrike B.S. Hedrich, Raffaella Barbieri, Daniela Miely, Bernhard Groschup, Thomas V. Wuttke, Niklas Vogel, Philipp Lührs, Ilaria Zanardi, Sara Bertelli, Nadine Spielmann, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Michael Pusch, Martin Dichgans, Holger Lerche, Paola Gavazzo, Nikolaus Plesnila, Tobias Freilinger
Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in migraine, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the cellular origin and specific differential mechanisms are not clear. Increased glutamatergic activity is thought to be the key factor for generating cortical spreading depression (CSD), a pathological mechanism of migraine. Here, we show that acute pharmacological activation of NaV1.1 (the main Na+ channel of interneurons) or optogenetic-induced hyperactivity of GABAergic interneurons is sufficient to ignite CSD in the neocortex by spiking-generated extracellular K+ build-up. Neither GABAergic nor glutamatergic synaptic transmission were required for CSD initiation. CSD was not generated in other brain areas, suggesting that this is a neocortex-specific mechanism of CSD initiation. Gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.1 (SCN1A) cause familial hemiplegic migraine type-3 (FHM3), a subtype of migraine with aura, of which CSD is the neurophysiological correlate. Our results provide the mechanism linking NaV1.1 gain of function to CSD generation in FHM3. Thus, we reveal the key role of hyperactivity of GABAergic interneurons in a mechanism of CSD initiation, which is relevant as a pathological mechanism of Nav1.1 FHM3 mutations, and possibly also for other types of migraine and diseases in which SDs are involved.
Oana Chever, Sarah Zerimech, Paolo Scalmani, Louisiane Lemaire, Lara Pizzamiglio, Alexandre Loucif, Marion Ayrault, Martin Krupa, Mathieu Desroches, Fabrice Duprat, Isabelle Léna, Sandrine Cestèle, Massimo Mantegazza
The transcription factor NFATC2 induces β cell proliferation in mouse and human islets. However, the genomic targets that mediate these effects have not been identified. We expressed active forms of Nfatc2 and Nfatc1 in human islets. By integrating changes in gene expression with genomic binding sites for NFATC2, we identified approximately 2200 transcriptional targets of NFATC2. Genes induced by NFATC2 were enriched for transcripts that regulate the cell cycle and for DNA motifs associated with the transcription factor FOXP. Islets from an endocrine-specific Foxp1, Foxp2, and Foxp4 triple-knockout mouse were less responsive to NFATC2-induced β cell proliferation, suggesting the FOXP family works to regulate β cell proliferation in concert with NFATC2. NFATC2 induced β cell proliferation in both mouse and human islets, whereas NFATC1 did so only in human islets. Exploiting this species difference, we identified approximately 250 direct transcriptional targets of NFAT in human islets. This gene set enriches for cell cycle–associated transcripts and includes Nr4a1. Deletion of Nr4a1 reduced the capacity of NFATC2 to induce β cell proliferation, suggesting that much of the effect of NFATC2 occurs through its induction of Nr4a1. Integration of noncoding RNA expression, chromatin accessibility, and NFATC2 binding sites enabled us to identify NFATC2-dependent enhancer loci that mediate β cell proliferation.
Shane P. Simonett, Sunyoung Shin, Jacob A. Herring, Rhonda Bacher, Linsin A. Smith, Chenyang Dong, Mary E. Rabaglia, Donnie S. Stapleton, Kathryn L. Schueler, Jeea Choi, Matthew N. Bernstein, Daniel R. Turkewitz, Carlos Perez-Cervantes, Jason Spaeth, Roland Stein, Jeffery S. Tessem, Christina Kendziorski, Sündüz Keleş, Ivan P. Moskowitz, Mark P. Keller, Alan D. Attie
Formation of NO by endothelial NOS (eNOS) is a central process in the homeostatic regulation of vascular functions including blood pressure regulation, and fluid shear stress exerted by the flowing blood is a main stimulus of eNOS activity. Previous work has identified several mechanosensing and -transducing processes in endothelial cells, which mediate this process and induce the stimulation of eNOS activity through phosphorylation of the enzyme via various kinases including AKT. How the initial mechanosensing and signaling processes are linked to eNOS phosphorylation is unclear. In human endothelial cells, we demonstrated that protein kinase N2 (PKN2), which is activated by flow through the mechanosensitive cation channel Piezo1 and Gq/G11-mediated signaling, as well as by Ca2+ and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), plays a pivotal role in this process. Active PKN2 promoted the phosphorylation of human eNOS at serine 1177 and at a newly identified site, serine 1179. These phosphorylation events additively led to increased eNOS activity. PKN2-mediated eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 involved the phosphorylation of AKT synergistically with mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation, whereas active PKN2 directly phosphorylated human eNOS at serine 1179. Mice with induced endothelium-specific deficiency of PKN2 showed strongly reduced flow-induced vasodilation and developed arterial hypertension accompanied by reduced eNOS activation. These results uncover a central mechanism that couples upstream mechanosignaling processes in endothelial cells to the regulation of eNOS-mediated NO formation, vascular tone, and blood pressure.
Young-June Jin, Ramesh Chennupati, Rui Li, Guozheng Liang, ShengPeng Wang, András Iring, Johannes Graumann, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
Although serine metabolism plays a crucial role in the proliferation and survival of tumor cells, how it supports tumor cell migration remains poorly understood. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphonooxypyruvate, the first committed step in de novo serine biosynthesis. Here we show that PHGDH was monoubiquitinated by cullin 4A–based E3 ligase complex at lysine 146 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, which enhanced PHGDH activity by recruiting a chaperone protein, DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1, to promote its tetrameric formation, thereby increasing the levels of serine, glycine, and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Increased levels of SAM upregulated the expression of cell adhesion genes (laminin subunit gamma 2 and cysteine rich angiogenic inducer 61) by initiating SET domain containing 1A–mediated trimethylation of histone H3K4, thereby promoting tumor cell migration and CRC metastasis. Intriguingly, SAM levels in tumors or blood samples correlated with the metastatic recurrence of patients with CRC. Our finding not only reveals a potentially new role and mechanism of SAM-promoted tumor metastasis but also demonstrates a regulatory mechanism of PHGDH activity by monoubiquitination.
Yajuan Zhang, Hua Yu, Jie Zhang, Hong Gao, Siyao Wang, Shuxian Li, Ping Wei, Ji Liang, Guanzhen Yu, Xiongjun Wang, Xinxiang Li, Dawei Li, Weiwei Yang
To explore how the immune system controls clearance of SARS-CoV-2, we used a single-cell, mass cytometry–based proteomics platform to profile the immune systems of 21 patients who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection without need for admission to an intensive care unit or for mechanical ventilation. We focused on receptors involved in interactions between immune cells and virus-infected cells. We found that the diversity of receptor repertoires on natural killer (NK) cells was negatively correlated with the viral clearance rate. In addition, NK subsets expressing the receptor DNAM1 were increased in patients who more rapidly recovered from infection. Ex vivo functional studies revealed that NK subpopulations with high DNAM1 expression had cytolytic activities in response to target cell stimulation. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 infection induced the expression of CD155 and nectin-4, ligands of DNAM1 and its paired coinhibitory receptor TIGIT, which counterbalanced the cytolytic activities of NK cells. Collectively, our results link the cytolytic immune responses of NK cells to the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and show that the DNAM1 pathway modulates host-pathogen interactions during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
While direct allorecognition underpins both solid organ allograft rejection and tolerance induction, the specific molecular targets of most directly alloreactive CD8+ T cells have not been defined. In this study, we used a combination of genetically engineered major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) constructs, mice with a hepatocyte-specific mutation in the class I antigen-presentation pathway, and immunopeptidomic analysis to provide definitive evidence for the contribution of the peptide cargo of allogeneic MHC I molecules to transplant tolerance induction. We established a systematic approach for the discovery of directly recognized pMHC epitopes and identified 17 strongly immunogenic H-2Kb–associated peptides recognized by CD8+ T cells from B10.BR (H-2k) mice, 13 of which were also recognized by BALB/c (H-2d) mice. As few as 5 different tetramers used together were able to identify a high proportion of alloreactive T cells within a polyclonal population, suggesting that there are immunodominant allogeneic MHC-peptide complexes that can account for a large component of the alloresponse.
Eric T. Son, Pouya Faridi, Moumita Paul-Heng, Mario L. Leong, Kieran English, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Asolina Braun, Nadine L. Dudek, Ian E. Alexander, Leszek Lisowski, Patrick Bertolino, David G. Bowen, Anthony W. Purcell, Nicole A. Mifsud, Alexandra F. Sharland
Aberrant activation of telomerase in human cancer is achieved by various alterations within the TERT promoter, including cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation of the TERT hypermethylated oncological region (THOR). However, the impact of allele-specific DNA methylation within the TERT promoter on gene transcription remains incompletely understood. Using allele-specific next-generation sequencing, we screened a large cohort of normal and tumor tissues (n = 652) from 10 cancer types and identified that differential allelic methylation (DAM) of THOR is restricted to cancerous tissue and commonly observed in major cancer types. THOR-DAM was more common in adult cancers, which develop through multiple stages over time, than in childhood brain tumors. Furthermore, THOR-DAM was especially enriched in tumors harboring the activating TERT promoter mutations (TPMs). Functional studies revealed that allele-specific gene expression of TERT requires hypomethylation of the core promoter, both in TPM and TERT WT cancers. However, the expressing allele with hypomethylated core TERT promoter universally exhibits hypermethylation of THOR, while the nonexpressing alleles are either hypermethylated or hypomethylated throughout the promoter. Together, our findings suggest a dual role for allele-specific DNA methylation within the TERT promoter in the regulation of TERT expression in cancer.
Donghyun D. Lee, Martin Komosa, Sumedha Sudhaman, Ricardo Leão, Cindy H. Zhang, Joana D. Apolonio, Thomas Hermanns, Peter J. Wild, Helmut Klocker, Farshad Nassiri, Gelareh Zadeh, Bill H. Diplas, Hai Yan, Steven Gallinger, Trevor J. Pugh, Vijay Ramaswamy, Michael D. Taylor, Pedro Castelo-Branco, Nuno Miguel Nunes, Uri Tabori
In this study, we demonstrate that forkhead box F1 (FOXF1), a mesenchymal transcriptional factor essential for lung development, was retained in a topographically distinct mesenchymal stromal cell population along the bronchovascular space in an adult lung and identify this distinct subset of collagen-expressing cells as key players in lung allograft remodeling and fibrosis. Using Foxf1-tdTomato BAC (Foxf1-tdTomato) and Foxf1-tdTomato Col1a1-GFP mice, we show that Lin–Foxf1+ cells encompassed the stem cell antigen 1+CD34+ (Sca1+CD34+) subset of collagen 1–expressing mesenchymal cells (MCs) with a capacity to generate CFU and lung epithelial organoids. Histologically, FOXF1-expressing MCs formed a 3D network along the conducting airways; FOXF1 was noted to be conspicuously absent in MCs in the alveolar compartment. Bulk and single-cell RNA-Seq confirmed distinct transcriptional signatures of Foxf1+ and Foxf1– MCs, with Foxf1-expressing cells delineated by their high expression of the transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) and low expression of integrin α8 (Itga), versus other collagen-expressing MCs. FOXF1+Gli1+ MCs showed proximity to Sonic hedgehog–expressing (Shh-expressing) bronchial epithelium, and mesenchymal expression of Foxf1 and Gli1 was found to be dependent on paracrine Shh signaling in epithelial organoids. Using a murine lung transplant model, we show dysregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal SHH/GLI1/FOXF1 crosstalk and expansion of this specific peribronchial MC population in chronically rejecting fibrotic lung allografts.
Russell R. Braeuer, Natalie M. Walker, Keizo Misumi, Serina Mazzoni-Putman, Yoshiro Aoki, Ruohan Liao, Ragini Vittal, Gabriel G. Kleer, David S. Wheeler, Jonathan Z. Sexton, Carol F. Farver, Joshua D. Welch, Vibha N. Lama
Inflammatory disorders of the skin are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). To explore mechanisms by which these organs communicate, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on fibroblasts from humans and mice with IBD. This analysis revealed that intestinal inflammation promoted differentiation of a subset of intestinal stromal fibroblasts into preadipocytes with innate antimicrobial host defense activity. Furthermore, this process of reactive adipogenesis was exacerbated if mouse skin was inflamed as a result of skin wounding or infection. Since hyaluronan (HA) catabolism is activated during skin injury and fibroblast-to-adipocyte differentiation is dependent on HA, we tested the hypothesis that HA fragments could alter colon fibroblast function by targeted expression of human hyaluronidase-1 in basal keratinocytes from mouse skin. Hyaluronidase expression in the skin activated intestinal stromal fibroblasts, altered the fecal microbiome, and promoted excessive reactive adipogenesis and increased inflammation in the colon after challenge with dextran sodium sulfate. The response to digested HA was dependent on expression of TLR4 by preadipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that the association between skin inflammation and IBD may be due to recognition by mesenchymal fibroblasts in the colon of HA released during inflammation of the skin.
Tatsuya Dokoshi, Jason S. Seidman, Kellen J. Cavagnero, Fengwu Li, Marc C. Liggins, Bryn C. Taylor, Jocelyn Olvera, Rob Knight, John T. Chang, Nita H. Salzman, Richard L. Gallo
Initiation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling involves the activation of the tyrosine kinase LCK; however, it is currently unclear how LCK is recruited and activated. Here, we have identified the membrane protein CD146 as an essential member of the TCR network for LCK activation. CD146 deficiency in T cells substantially impaired thymocyte development and peripheral activation, both of which depend on TCR signaling. CD146 was found to directly interact with the SH3 domain of coreceptor-free LCK via its cytoplasmic domain. Interestingly, we found CD146 to be present in both monomeric and dimeric forms in T cells, with the dimerized form increasing after TCR ligation. Increased dimerized CD146 recruited LCK and promoted LCK autophosphorylation. In tumor models, CD146 deficiency dramatically impaired the antitumor response of T cells. Together, our data reveal an LCK activation mechanism for TCR initiation. We also underscore a rational intervention based on CD146 for tumor immunotherapy.
Central obesity with cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a major global contributor to human disease, and effective therapies are needed. Here, we show that cyclic GMP–selective phosphodiesterase 9A inhibition (PDE9-I) in both male and ovariectomized female mice suppresses preestablished severe diet-induced obesity/CMS with or without superimposed mild cardiac pressure load. PDE9-I reduces total body, inguinal, hepatic, and myocardial fat; stimulates mitochondrial activity in brown and white fat; and improves CMS, without significantly altering activity or food intake. PDE9 localized at mitochondria, and its inhibition in vitro stimulated lipolysis in a PPARα-dependent manner and increased mitochondrial respiration in both adipocytes and myocytes. PPARα upregulation was required to achieve the lipolytic, antiobesity, and metabolic effects of PDE9-I. All these PDE9-I–induced changes were not observed in obese/CMS nonovariectomized females, indicating a strong sexual dimorphism. We found that PPARα chromatin binding was reoriented away from fat metabolism–regulating genes when stimulated in the presence of coactivated estrogen receptor-α, and this may underlie the dimorphism. These findings have translational relevance given that PDE9-I is already being studied in humans for indications including heart failure, and efficacy against obesity/CMS would enhance its therapeutic utility.
Sumita Mishra, Nandhini Sadagopan, Brittany Dunkerly-Eyring, Susana Rodriguez, Dylan C. Sarver, Ryan P. Ceddia, Sean A. Murphy, Hildur Knutsdottir, Vivek P. Jani, Deepthi Ashok, Christian U. Oeing, Brian O’Rourke, Jon A. Gangoiti, Dorothy D. Sears, G. William Wong, Sheila Collins, David A. Kass
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2–specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Additionally, IgG clones directed against a seasonal coronavirus were boosted in patients with severe COVID-19. These boosted clones showed limited cross-reactivity and did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate a boost of poorly protective CoV-specific antibodies in patients with COVID-19 that correlated with disease severity, revealing “original antigenic sin.”
Muriel Aguilar-Bretones, Brenda M. Westerhuis, Matthijs P. Raadsen, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity D. Chandler, Nisreen M.A. Okba, Bart L. Haagmans, Thomas Langerak, Henrik Endeman, Johannes P.C. van den Akker, Diederik A.M.P.J. Gommers, Eric C.M. van Gorp, Corine H. GeurtsvanKessel, Rory D. de Vries, Ron A.M. Fouchier, Barry H.G. Rockx, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Gijsbert P. van Nierop
Insulin resistance is present in one-quarter of the general population, predisposing these people to a wide range of diseases. Our aim was to identify cell-intrinsic determinants of insulin resistance in this population using induced pluripotent stem cell–derived (iPSC–derived) myoblasts (iMyos). We found that these cells exhibited a large network of altered protein phosphorylation in vitro. Integrating these data with data from type 2 diabetic iMyos revealed critical sites of conserved altered phosphorylation in IRS-1, AKT, mTOR, and TBC1D1 in addition to changes in protein phosphorylation involved in Rho/Rac signaling, chromatin organization, and RNA processing. There were also striking differences in the phosphoproteome in cells from men versus women. These sex-specific and insulin-resistance defects were linked to functional differences in downstream actions. Thus, there are cell-autonomous signaling alterations associated with insulin resistance within the general population and important differences between men and women, many of which also occur in diabetes, that contribute to differences in physiology and disease.
Nida Haider, Jasmin Lebastchi, Ashok Kumar Jayavelu, Thiago M. Batista, Hui Pan, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Ivan Carcamo-Orive, Joshua W. Knowles, Matthias Mann, C. Ronald Kahn
Dysregulation in adipokine biosynthesis and function contributes to obesity-induced metabolic diseases. However, the identities and functions of many of the obesity-induced secretory molecules remain unknown. Here, we report the identification of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) as an obesity-associated adipokine that exacerbates high fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Serum levels of LRG1 were markedly elevated in obese humans and mice compared to their respective controls. LRG1 deficiency in mice greatly alleviated diet-induced hepatosteatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, LRG1 bound with high selectivity to the liver and promoted hepatosteatosis by increasing de novo lipogenesis and suppressing fatty acid β-oxidation. LRG1 also inhibited hepatic insulin signaling by down-regulating insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2. Our study identified LRG1 as a key molecule that mediates the crosstalk between adipocytes and hepatocytes in diet-induced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance. Suppressing LRG1 expression and function may be a promising strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Sijia He, Jiyoon Ryu, Juanhong Liu, Hairong Luo, Ying Lv, Paul R. Langlais, Jie Wen, Feng Dong, Zhe Sun, Wenjuan Xia, Jane L. Lynch, Ravindranath Duggirala, Bruce J. Nicholson, Mengwei Zang, Yuguang Shi, Fang Zhang, Feng Liu, Juli Bai, Lily Q. Dong
Impaired wound healing associated with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection and unresolved inflammation are hallmarks of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Perforin-2, an innate immunity molecule against intracellular bacteria, limits cutaneous infection and dissemination of S. aureus in mice. Here we report the intracellular accumulation of S. aureus in the epidermis of DFU with no clinical signs of infection due to marked suppression of Perforin-2. S. aureus residing within the epidermis of DFU triggers AIM2-inflammasome activation and pyroptosis. These findings were corroborated in mice lacking Perforin-2. The effects of pyroptosis on DFU clinical outcomes were further elucidated in a 4-week longitudinal clinical study in DFU patients undergoing standard of care. Increased AIM2-inflammasome and ASC-pyroptosome coupled with induction of IL-1β were found in non-healing when compared to healing DFU. Our findings reveal novel mechanism that includes Perforin-2 suppression, intracellular S. aureus accumulation and associated induction of pyroptosis that contribute to healing inhibition and prolonged inflammation in patients with DFU.
Irena Pastar, Andrew P. Sawaya, Jelena Marjanovic, Jamie L. Burgess, Natasa Strbo, Katelyn E. Rivas, Tongyu C. Wikramanayake, Cheyanne R. Head, Rivka C. Stone, Ivan Jozic, Olivera Stojadinovic, Eran Y. Kornfeld, Robert S. Kirsner, Hadar Lev-Tov, Marjana Tomic-Canic
The PRDM13 (PR Domain containing 13) putative chromatin modifier and transcriptional regulator functions downstream of the transcription factor PTF1A, which controls GABAergic fate in the spinal cord and neurogenesis in the hypothalamus. Here, we report a novel, recessive syndrome associated with PRDM13 mutation. Patients exhibited intellectual disability, ataxia with cerebellar hypoplasia, scoliosis and delayed puberty with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Expression studies revealed Prdm13/PRDM13 transcripts in the developing hypothalamus and cerebellum in mouse and human. An analysis of hypothalamus and cerebellum development in mice homozygous for a Prdm13 mutant allele revealed a significant reduction in the number of Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamus and PAX2+ progenitors emerging from the cerebellar ventricular zone. The latter was accompanied by ectopic expression of the glutamatergic lineage marker TLX3. Prdm13-deficient mice displayed cerebellar hypoplasia, normal gonadal structure, but delayed pubertal onset. Together, these findings identify PRDM13 as a critical regulator of GABAergic cell fate in the cerebellum and of hypothalamic kisspeptin neuron development, providing a mechanistic explanation for the co-occurrence of CHH and cerebellar hypoplasia in this syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence linking disrupted PRDM13-mediated regulation of Kiss1 neurons to CHH in humans.
Danielle E. Whittaker, Roberto Oleari, Louise C. Gregory, Polona Le Quesne Stabej, Hywel J. Williams, John G. Torpiano, Nancy Formosa, Mario J. Cachia, Daniel Field, Antonella Lettieri, Louise A. Ocaka, Alyssa J.J. Paganoni, Sakina H. Rajabali, Kimberley L.H. Riegman, Lisa B. De Martini, Taro Chaya, Iain C. Robinson, Takahisa Furukawa, Anna Cariboni, M. Albert Basson, Mehul T. Dattani
Despite the curative potential of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), conditioning-associated toxicities preclude broader clinical application. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) provide an attractive approach to HSCT conditioning that minimizes toxicity while retaining efficacy. Initial studies of ADC conditioning have largely focused on syngeneic HSCT. However, to treat acute leukemias or induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation, this approach must be expanded to allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). Using murine allo-HSCT models, we show that pharmacologic Janus kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) inhibition combined with CD45- or cKit-targeted ADCs enables robust multilineage alloengraftment. Strikingly, myeloid lineage donor chimerism exceeding 99% was achievable in fully MHC-mismatched HSCT using this approach. Mechanistic studies using the JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib revealed marked impairment of T and NK cell survival, proliferation and effector function. NK cells were exquisitely sensitive to JAK1/2 inhibition due to interference with IL-15 signaling. Unlike irradiated mice, ADC-conditioned mice did not develop pathogenic graft-versus-host alloreactivity when challenged with mismatched T cells. Finally, the combination of ADCs and baricitinib balanced graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia responses in delayed donor lymphocyte infusion models. Our allo-HSCT conditioning strategy exemplifies the promise of immunotherapy to improve the safety of HSCT for treating hematologic diseases.
Stephen P. Persaud, Julie K. Ritchey, Sena Kim, Sora Lim, Peter G. Ruminski, Matthew L. Cooper, Michael P. Rettig, Jaebok Choi, John F. DiPersio
Acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by diverse clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal respiratory failure, and often associated with varied longer-term sequelae. Over the past 18 months, it has become apparent that inappropriate immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Researchers working at the intersection of COVID-19 and autoimmunity recently gathered at an American Autoimmune Related Disease Association (AARDA) Noel R. Rose Colloquium to address the current state of knowledge regarding two important questions: Does established autoimmunity predispose to severe COVID-19? And, at the same time, can SARS-CoV-2 infection trigger de novo autoimmunity? Indeed, work to date has demonstrated that 10 to 15% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia exhibit autoantibodies against type I interferons, suggesting that preexisting autoimmunity underlies severe disease in some patients. Other studies have identified functional autoantibodies following infection with SARS-CoV-2, such as those that promote thrombosis or antagonize cytokine signaling. These autoantibodies may arise from a predominantly extrafollicular B cell response that is more prone to generating autoantibody-secreting B cells. This review highlights the current understanding, evolving concepts, and unanswered questions provided by this unique opportunity to determine mechanisms by which a viral infection can be exacerbated by, and even trigger, autoimmunity. The potential role of autoimmunity in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 is also discussed.
Jason S. Knight, Roberto Caricchio, Jean Laurent Casanova, Alexis J. Combes, Betty Diamond, Sharon E. Fox, David A. Hanauer, Judith A. James, Yogendra Kanthi, Virginia Ladd, Puja Mehta, Aaron M. Ring, Ignacio Sanz, Carlo Selmi, Russell P. Tracy, Paul J. Utz, Catriona A. Wagner, Julia Y. Wang, W. Joseph McCune
Animals, plants, and bacteria all display behavioral patterns that coincide with Earth’s light and dark cycles. These oscillating behaviors are the manifestation of the molecular circadian clock, a highly conserved network that maintains a near 24-hour rhythm even in the absence of light. In mammals, light signals are transmitted via the superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to synchronize peripheral clocks and coordinate physiological functions with the organism’s active period. This collection of reviews, curated by Amita Sehgal, considers the critical role of the circadian system in human health. Technology, work, and social obligations can disrupt optimal sleep and wake schedules, leaving humans vulnerable to diseases affecting the heart, brain, metabolism, and more. Sleep disorders as well as normal variations in human chronotype may exacerbate circadian disruptions, with profound consequences. These reviews emphasize that ongoing efforts to understand the complexities of human circadian rhythm will be essential for developing chronotherapies and other circadian-based interventions.